Roman Temple of Evora and Diana park

Roman Temple of Evora

The Roman Temple of Evora (Portuguese: Templo romano de Evora), also referred to as the Templo de Diana (albeit wrongly, after Diana, the ancient Roman goddess of the moon, the hunt, and chastity) is an ancient temple in the Portuguese city of Evora (civil parish of Se e Sao Pedro). The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, which was included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. It represents one of the most significant landmarks relating to the Roman and Lusitanian civilizations of Evora and in Portuguese territory.

An 1865 sketch from Archivo Pittoresco (vol. 10), 1865, showing the medieval aspects of the tower/temple/stronghouse Sketch of the Temple, circa 1870, showing its state before restorations by Giuseppe Cinatti.

The manicured gardens of the historical square, with the Temple, the museum (formerly the Archbishop's palace) and the northern tower of the cathedral in the background

The temple is believed to have been constructed around the first century A.D., in honour of Augustus, who was venerated as a god during and after his rule. The temple was built in the main public square (forum) of Evora, then called Liberalitas Iulia. During the 2nd and 3rd centuries, from the traditionally accepted chronology, the temple was part of a radical redefinition of the urban city, when religious veneration and administrative polity were oriented around the central space; the structure was modified around this time.

Roman Temple of Evora

The temple was destroyed during the 5th century by invading Germanic peoples.

During the 14th century, the temple's space served as a stronghouse for the town's castle, while Fernao Lopes described the structure as being in shambles. In 1467, King Afonso V of Portugal authorized Soeiro Mendes to remove stones from the structure for building purposes and defense. The ruins of the temple were incorporated into a tower of the Castle of Evora during the Middle Ages. The base, columns and architraves of the temple were kept embedded in the walls of the medieval building; the temple-turned-tower was used as a butcher shop from the 14th century until 1836; this new use of the temple structure helped preserve its remains from complete destruction.

In the 16th-century Manueline foral ('charter'), the temple is represented, during a period when oral tradition suggested that the temple was attributed to Quintus Sertorius, the famous Lusitanian general (and perpetuated by paladins Andre de Resende and Mendes de Vasconcelos).

It was in the 17th century that references to the 'Temple of Diana', first made by Father Manuel Fialho, began to appear.[4][6] Although the Roman temple of Evora is often called the Temple of Diana, any association with the Roman goddess of hunt stems not from archaeology but from a legend created in the 17th century by the Portuguese priest. Other interpretations suggest that it might have been dedicated to Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Zeus.

Roman Temple of Evora

The first reconstitution of the temple's appearance occurred in 1789 by James Murphy.

By the beginning of the 19th century, the structure still had the pydramidal merlons typical of the post-Reconquista Arabic structures around the colonnade. In 1836 it ceased being a butchershop.

In 1840, Cunha Rivara, then director of the Public Library of Evora, obtained the right to dispose of the buildings annexed to the monument from the Portuguese Inquisition, which were annexed to the northern facade of the temple. These structures were demolished, and the first great archaeological excavation was undertaken in Portugal. The resulting survey uncovered tanks of a primitive aqueduct. The stress on the space had begun to reach its limits by 1863, when the ceiling was partially destroyed; the tanks unearthed in the early excavation were also partially destroyed during expansion and landscaping of the main square.

By 1869, Augusto Filipe Simoes proposed the urgent demolition of the medieval structures, defending the restoration of the primitive face of the Roman temple.Three years later, under the direction of Italian architect Giuseppe Cinatti, the vestiges of the medieval structures were finally removed, and a program of restoration was carried out in line with the Romantic thinking of the period.

Between 1989 and 1994, new excavations in the vicinity of the temple were completed under the supervision of the German archeologist Theodor Hauschild.

Convento de Sao Joao Evangelista

Восточнее римских руин располагался замок арабских времен.

Convento dos Loios, также известный как Convento de Sao Joao Evangelista, был построен в 15 веке на месте того, что осталось от средневекового замка, сильно пострадавшего во время землетрясения 1755 года.

Монастырь был построен на месте, где существовала часть Эвораского замка арабского происхождения, который был полностью разрушен после сильного пожара, который поглотил его во время борьбы, произошедшей во время кризиса 1383-1385 гг. Что касается будущего монастыря, то он уже строился по инициативе того же самого Д. Родриго де Мело, церкви, призываемой Сан-Жуан Евангелистой и предназначенной для того, чтобы задыхаться в семье. В 1491 году, когда работы монастыря практически завершены, состоялось освящение храма.

O Convento dos Loios, tambem conhecido como Convento de Sao Joao Evangelista, foi construido no seculo XV sobre o que restava de um castelo medieval, tendo ficado bastante danificado aquando do terramoto de 1755.

E um conjunto de planta rectangular que se desenvolve em torno de um claustro de dois pisos, sendo o piso inferior de estilo gotico-manuelino e o superior ja com caracteristicas renascenca.

A igreja, de estilo manuelino, tem uma nave de cinco tramos rectangulares e e coberta por uma abobada nervurada. As paredes estao revestidas com paineis azulejares do seculo XVIII.

A capela-mor, de planta poligonal, e coberta por uma abobada de complicado desenho, com ogivas entrecruzadas, e as suas paredes estao revestidas de azulejos dos seculos XVII e XVIII.

Convento de Sao Joao Evangelista

A Casa do Capitulo, atribuida a Diogo de Arruda, e precedida por um portal mourisco do inicio do seculo XVI.

Em 1487 o primeiro conde de Olivenca, D. Rodrigo de Melo, Governador de Tanger e guarda-mor do rei D. Afonso V, iniciou a construcao deste convento sob licenca de D. Joao II. O convento foi erguido nos terrenos onde tinha existido parte do Castelo de Evora, de origem arabe, que estava totalmente destruido na sequencia de um grande incendio que o consumiu durante as lutas ocorridas durante a Crise de 1383-1385. Contiguo ao futuro convento, estava ja em construcao, por iniciativa do mesmo D. Rodrigo de Melo, uma igreja, sob invocacao de Sao Joao Evangelista e que este destinou a panteao da familia. Em 1491 com as obras do convento praticamente concluidas, deu-se a consagracao da igreja.[1]

Em 1498 realizaram-se importantes obras prolongando o edificio ate ao vizinho "Colegio dos Meninos do Coro da Se de Evora".

No seculo XVIII, o terramoto de 1755 viria a arruinar ainda mais o edificio ja em estado de degradacao, realizando-se entao obras de recuperacao, nomeadamente na fachada e dormitorios.

Em 1834, com a extincao das ordens religiosas masculinas, foi desactivado ficando desabitado durante longos anos, sabendo-se todavia que em 1937 foi adaptado para sede da Direccao dos Monumentos do Sul e que em 1944 sofreu obras para instalacao do Arquivo Distrital de Evora.

Em 1957 inicou-se o estudo de adaptacao para Pousada, que, sob projecto do arquitecto Rui Angelo do Couto,[3] viria a ser inaugurada em 27 de Marco de 1963.

No piso terreo o portal mainelado com arcos em ferradura, a entrada da Sala do Capitulo, e considerado um perfeito exemplar da arquitectura regional manuelino-mudejar. Nesta porta pode-se ainda ver um medalhao alusivo a participacao de D. Rodrigo de Melo na Batalha de Azamor.

A adaptacao a Pousada manteve praticamente intacta a estrutura original do edificio, contando esta com 31 quartos nos locais onde se situavam as antigas Celas dos Conegos Regrantes, e duas suites mais amplas, possuindo uma delas, a "Suite presidencial", uma sala decorada com frescos.

No piso terreo encontra-se o antigo refeitorio dos monges, utilizado como sala dos pequenos almocos ou sala de refeicoes no Inverno, bem como a antiga cozinha do convento, agora transformada numa das salas de estar da Pousada. A sala de refeicoes desenvolve-se em torno do claustro.

O acesso ao 1? andar faz-se por uma escadaria em marmore que permite aceder a "Sala do Imperio", antiga "Sala do D. Prior", revestida com pinturas murais de Francisco de Figueiredo e com retratos de personagens da Literatura e da Historia de Portugal bem como do fundador do convnto.

Construido no seculo XV sobre o que restava de um castelo medieval, o Convento dos Loios, conhecido tambem como Convento de Sao Joao Evangelista, ficou muito danificado aquando do terramoto de 1755.

O Museu Convento de Loios contem um majestoso e imponente claustro de dois pisos, sendo o piso inferior de estilo gotico-manuelino e o superior ja com caracteristicas renascentistas.

A igreja, construida no estilo manuelino, tem uma nave de cinco tramos rectangulares e cobre-se por uma abobada esplendorosa. As paredes, revestidas com paineis azulejares do seculo XVIII, sao autenticas joias do azulejo setecentista, em Portugal.

Ja a capela-mor e coberta por uma abobada de complicado desenho, com excelsas ogivas entrecruzadas.

Южнее расположен Эворский собор


Эворский собор

Фасад собора оснащён двумя башнями средневековой эпохи, а с южной стороны виднеется колокольня собора, чьи колокола на протяжении веков отмечали часы города. Самым символичным архитектурным фрагментом внешнего вида является Круизная Башня Можжевельника, возвышающаяся фонарь-башня, возведенная в царствование Диниса, который является экслибрисом собора и одним из самых известных районов города. В дополнение к главному портику есть еще два входа: Солнечные ворота, обращенные на юг с готическими арками, и Северные ворота, перестроенные в период бароккo


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